2nd Generation Wood Heat Controller

    

 

Tom Schmidt

3/14/2015

 

Tom@tschmidt.com

http://www.tschmidt.com

 

The greenhouse project was so successful that soon afterward I decided to upgrade our 25 year old first generation wood heat controller to bring it into the 21st century. Our primary heat source is a cord wood stove in the basement. System uses the same WebControl PLC as the greenhouse controller that: monitors flue temperature, controls fans to distribute heat within the house and bring in outside combustion air. It also operates a water pump to increase heat capture from the wood stove. The unit has been in operation for a couple of years with a few modifications to improve operation.

 


 

Table of Contents

Overview.. 3

1st Generation Controller. 4

2nd Generation Controller. 5

Flue Temperature Monitor. 5

Temperature Probe. 5

PID Temperature Controller. 6

Fresh Air Inlet and Duct Fan. 7

House Air Circulation. 7

Wood Stove Water Heater. 7

Preheat Tank Temperature Display. 7

Preheat Tank Pump. 8

Water Heater Emergency Cutoff. 8

BTUs Gained – KWHs Saved. 9

Greenhouse Controller Integration. 9

Greenhouse Controller Health Status. 10

Greenhouse Impending Freeze Signaling. 10

Greenhouse Basement Fan Signaling. 10

Stove Work Light. 10

Operating Modes. 10

Audible Alarm.. 11

Alarm Silence. 11

Really Loud Alarm.. 11

WebControl Programmable Logic Controller. 11

System Status. 11

Email Alerts. 13

Additional Fire Safety Features. 15

Smoke & Carbon Monoxide Detectors. 15

Heat Sensors. 15

Fire Extinguishers. 15

Theory of Operation. 16

Front Panel Controls and Indicators. 16

System Power Control 17

Stove in Use Detector. 17

PLC Keep Alive. 18

Rocker Switch - ON.. 18

Greenhouse Freeze Alarm.. 18

Automatic Power Down. 19

Rocker Switch - Off. 19

DC Power Distribution and Control 19

LED Indicator Logic. 20

SSRs and Audible Alarms. 20

Field Wiring. 20

Low Voltage. 21

AC. 21

Appendix A – Schematic. 22

Appendix B – WebControl Configuration Pages. 27

Network Setup. 27

I/O Setup. 28

Temperature Sensor Setup. 28

Notify Setup. 29

Appendix C – WebControl PLC Code. 30

Appendix D – PID Controller Configuration. 42

 


 

Overview

Our house is an open floor plan two story Cape. When we designed it many years ago investigated various heating options. Choose a wood stove located in center of walkout basement. Locating stove in basement keeps dirt out of the main living space and allows passive heat transfer to all three floors. Pretty pictures seen in architectural magazines aside, heating with cord wood is messy. Nice being able to limit dirt to the basement and not track in snow. Resistive electric baseboards serve as backup heat source. Electric heat is expensive in our location so we hardly ever use it, but nice having an alternative heat source just in case.

A two story open stairway near the stove allows unimpeded vertical airflow.  A pair of small fans above the stove blows hot air up and larger second floor fan blows air back into basement. Due to high level of insulation even without fans there is minimal temperature stratification. This is important during power outages so area near stove does not overheat.

Because house is so tight depressurization is a problem, a fan assisted fresh air intake near the stove brings in outside air.

Stove is a Tempwood (no longer in business) top loader rated at 55,000 BTUs. Two manually operated air inlets control burn. They run wide open when fire is started then are closed down to limit temperature. As former city dwellers it took a while to become comfortable heating with wood. The first time I fired up the stove used Pine construction scraps. Quickly learned, to my chagrin, that kiln dried softwood produces an incredibly hot fire.

At first we used a magnetic thermometer to monitor flue temperature. It was easy to dislodge and did not provide audible over temperature warning. If inlets were not closed down in a timely manner stove ran very hot until someone noticed and went downstairs to damp it down. For the 1st generation controller obtained several used Type J thermocouple digital temperature panel meters with BCD outputs and designed a simple comparator circuit to sound an alarm when stove was too hot.

Domestic hot water is provided by a 55 gallon electric water heater. During winter the wood stove acts as a preheater and in summer a solar batch heater in the greenhouse does the same reducing need for expensive electrically heated hot water.

 

 

I installed a Holly Solar Products  heat exchanger in the stove plumbed to a 30 gallon insulated storage tank.  Company still exists but is no longer in the heat exchanger business. Hilkoil currently sells a similar stainless steel retrofit heat exchanger but I have no direct experience with the company.   System is a passive thermosiphon loop. Hot water, being lighter than cold, rises to top of the heat exchanger pulling in heavier cold water from bottom. As long as stove is hotter than the tank, heat is transferred from stove to storage tank.  

The advantage of using a preheat tank rather than adding the thermosiphon loop directly to the water heater is a much lower starting temperate. Well water entering the preheat tank is about 45F vs 120F for the electric water heater allowing stove to transfer significantly more energy. It also means there is no need for a check valve in the thermos phone loop. There is not much force moving the water through the loop so even a swing check valve  is a significant impediment.

A pressure temperature relief valve PTRV is plumbed into the tank. It opens if water gets too hot or pressure too high. This is an important safety feature as a boiling water explosion is extremely dangerous. Mythbusters did an experiment to see what happens when a water heater explodes due to excessive pressure. The video is pretty dramatic.

Wood stove preheat tank is plumbed into the electric water heater cold water feed. As hot water is used electric heater draws replacement water from preheat tank. When stove is operating “cold” water entering electric heater is warmer than normal reducing or eliminating need for additional energy to heat the water.  During the summer a solar batch heater in the greenhouse acts as a preheater reducing summer energy use.  Implementing a preheat strategy has the advantage of not requiring any modification of the electric water heater while greatly reducing annual electricity consumption.

System works so well that during periods of cold weather and light hot water consumption preheat tank becomes hot enough to open PTRV discharging excess water.  Having worked hard cutting/stacking/splitting cordwood this waste is rather heartbreaking. In the 1st generation controller I used a second thermocouple meter to monitor preheat tank temperature to control a small pump that transfers hot water from the electric heater back into the cold inlet of the preheat tank, increasing hot water energy storage capacity and reducing the need to dump excess hot water.

1st Generation Controller

The old system used hardwired logic driven by flue and water temperature thermocouple displays. The BCD temperature outputs were processed to sound an alert if flue temperature was too high and control the preheat tank pump. Fans were controlled by a line voltage thermostat.   Normally unit was turned on at the beginning of a burn by the front panel pushbutton. The thermostat served as a backup turning the unit on whenever the fans were on.


 

2nd Generation Controller

With the successful implementation of the greenhouse controller I decided to see if I could update the old design to add features to increase safety, convenience and reduce energy consumption. Software enables more sophisticated control functions then the old hardwired system. Plus it was another fun project to undertake.

Another consideration driving the redesign effort is the digital panel meters I used are no longer available so if they fail I’m out of luck. Long term replacement is something to consider when designing this type of equipment.  The old system was in operation for 25 years. Over that time had to redesign the power supply when the original failed and replace the meters with spares due to a lightning strike.  Hopefully the new system will last as long. I purchased spares that can be placed into service if the originals fail.  This buys time to design a replacement years down the road.  As much as possible I tried to use the same major components as the greenhouse controller to minimize spares cost.  

Flue Temperature Monitor

The most important feature is flue temperate display and alarm. When fire is started stove air inlets need to be wide open. Once fire is going inlets are closed down to reduce flue temperature.  Too hot a burn stresses chimney and is a potential fire hazard as air around stove and chimney overheat. This wastes energy as air leaving the chimney is still hot. On the flip side running stove too cold causes creosote to form as newly loaded wood begins pyrolysis. This increases air pollution and poses a potential chimney fire hazard as the creosote condenses in the chimney and builds up on the flue liner. This wastes energy as the volatile gas component of the wood is not being burned so does not contribute to heating.  Goal is to burn wood hot enough prevent creosote deposits and low enough to capture most of the heat before gas leaves the chimney. Ideal flue temperature at the stove is between 300 – 500F (150 – 250C).

Temperature Probe

Given the high temperature involved thermocouple is the measurement technology of choice. Thermocouples generate a small voltage when the junction of dissimilar metals is heated, called the Seebeck effect. This voltage is very small so special analog processing is needed to display temperature.


The original controller used Type J thermocouples since that is what the panel meters needed. The new controller uses Type K. Type K is more common and better suited for flue temperature measurement.

Thermocouples have two upper bounds on temperature, that of the conductors themselves and the insulation material.  Exceeding maximum conductor temperate can permanently alter calibration. Exceeding insulation rating may result in shorts as the insulation is deformed or destroyed due to excessive temperature.  Type K thermocouples are suitable for high wood stove temperature, but only if the insulation is also rated for high temperature.  I chose an exhaust gas temperature (EGT) probe rated at full Type K temperature of 1250C. This is significantly hotter than worst case flue temperature.

The other consideration when picking a thermocouple is probe construction. There are three types of thermocouple probes: bare junction, grounded junction, and ungrounded junction.  For our purposes ungrounded junction is best. The probe shell completely surrounds the thermocouple junction and insulates it from the probe shell. This eliminates measurement problems due to stray voltages and protects it from combustion byproducts. The stove is grounded by virtue of the copper plumbing used to connect the heat exchanger. This provides a static discharge path protecting thermocouple electronics. The shell slows down response time a little but that is of no concern in our application. 

EGT thermocouple probes go for about $25. The probe I purchased is bent in 90 degrees and has a compression fitting designed to screw into a female 1/8” NPT (national pipe thread). The sheet metal flue is too thin to thread directly so I drilled a hole and used a nut to secure it. This is simply a method to keep the probe from becoming dislodged; it does not have to be gas tight.

PID Temperature Controller

There are numerous low cost PID (proportional integral derivative) temperature controllers on the market. I picked a MYPIN TA4-RNR that goes for about $30 on eBay. The unit displays flue and set point temperature. Controller interface is via two relay outputs, one is closed when temperature is too low (heating mode) the other at high temperature alarm. I chose relay outputs to isolate the controller from the rest of the circuitry. Having two outputs allowed me to program a high and low temperature threshold to drive a tri-color LED. Blue indicates too cold, green OK, and red too hot. An audible alarm is trigged if temperate becomes excessive. PID functionality is not used. The controller is simply programmed for heating mode with fixed set-points for low and high temperature threshold.

Buttons at the bottom set operating parameters that are stored in non-volatile memory.

The PID controller is AC powered. I used a small solid state relay (SSR) to switch it on/off in conjunction with the rest of the system.


 

Fresh Air Inlet and Duct Fan

The house is very tight; timber frame construction with stressed skin wall and roof panels, so depressurization is a problem.  An insulated flexible 4” duct runs from the stove to an inlet on the north side of the house with a large bore screen to keep out critters. Outside air is ducted to a grill on the wall above the stove bringing fresh air into the basement.  At the stove grill I added a normal sized screen to prevent small insects from entering the basement.  

I used a pair of back-to-back 4” to 6” adapters to mount a 6” AC 230 CFM duct boost fan near the stove grill.  A front panel toggle switch controls an SSR to select whether fan runs continuously or only when stove is in operation.

 

House Air Circulation

In the event of power failure heat from the stove propagates throughout the building passively. However using fans reduces temperature stratification increasing comfort throughout the house.  A pair of small savaged computer fans directly above the stove blow air into the living room and a larger fan located in a second floor closet blows air back to the basement.   

The controller uses Dallas (Maxim) 1-wire digital sensors allowing software to control fans.  A sensor located at the controller’s front panel monitors temperature near the stove and a second one at the upstairs fan reports 2nd floor temperature. Fans are AC powered controlled by a solid state relay (SSR). A tri color LED indicates air temperature: blue cold (fans off) green OK (fans on) red too hot – audible alarm sounds.

Wood Stove Water Heater

The stove reduces electricity needed to make hot water by preheating water in a 30 gallon insulated storage tank. Extracting heat from the wood stove is passive using a thermosiphon heat exchanger. I’ve documented the entire solar wood water heating system here.

Preheat Tank Temperature Display

I wanted to display preheat tank temperate but the PLC does not have provisions to drive a display. I added a standalone temperature display that uses its own temperature sensor.  The readout is configured to display in Fahrenheit.

Originally I used the same 1-wire temperature module as the greenhouse.  The sensors are kept powered up constantly but the display and other electronics are only powered when the controller is active. On rare occasions the temperature display did not read the 1-wire sensor correctly. So I replaced the display with a similar one that uses a thermistor to measure temperature.

Preheat Tank Pump

To increase storage capacity to capture more energy a small circulator pump is plumbed between the electric water heater hot-water outlet and preheat tank cold water inlet. The pump is turned on when preheat tank reaches a temperature somewhat above that of the electric water heater.  The pump transfers water from the electric water heater back to the preheat tank increasing thermal storage from 30 gallons (preheat tank alone) to 85 (preheat and water heater tank).

The transfer of water reduces preheat tank temperate allowing more heat to being captured from the stove.  Using the electric water heater increases storage capacity by about 50%. We rarely have a situation anymore where the preheat tank PTRV dumps excess hot water. Part of this is also a lifestyle choice. Knowing we have lots of hot water becomes a good time to do a little extra laundry.

A 1-wire digital sensor measures preheat tank temperature. The preheat tank already has a temperature sensor that reports temperature to the greenhouse controller.  PLC controller firmware allows the controllers to share information. However I have not yet implemented that feature. Until that time a separate sensor is used. This results in 3 temperature sensors attached to the preheat tank hot water outlet, 1-wire sensor feeds greenhouse, another 1-wire sensor feeds the woodstove controller and a thermistor sensor feeds the woodstove controller temperature display. A SSR controls pump power and a LED on the front panel illuminates when the pump is running.  A check valve prevents cold water from bypassing the electric heater when hot water is being drawn. 

Water Heater Emergency Cutoff

Electric water heaters have a resettable temperature limit thermostat in addition to the heating element thermostat. If water temperate exceeds maximum thermostat setting of 160F it trips cutting off power to the respective heating element. During periods of extreme cold and low water use water may exceed that temperature causing thermostat to trip. The event will probably go unnoticed for a while as the wood stove is making lots of hot water during cold weather. However once weather warms up water temperature will be too low.

The overtemp thermostat has a red reset button. To restore operation need to remove the protective cover and press the reset button. Typical residential water heaters have two elements one at the bottom and a secondary at the top. The one on the top is only energized during periods of high water use when water temperature in the tank gets too low.   “Cold” water from the preheat tank enters the electric water heater tank from the bottom via a dip tube, so that ends up being the hottest part of the tank.  Some heaters have ECOs on both thermostats some only at the one at the top of the tank.

BTUs Gained – KWHs Saved

Well water entering preheat tank is roughly 45 degrees Fahrenheit (7C) in winter. Raising water temperature to 160F (71 C) takes 28,738 BTUs (160 – 45 x 30 gal x 8.33 BTU).

Electric water heater is 55 gallons set to 120F (49 C).  Increasing water temperature to 160F takes 18,326 BTUs (160 – 120 x 55 x 8.33 BTU).

It takes 8.4kwh to raise 30 gallons of water to 160F at a cost of $.17kwh each tank of water heated by the stove saves $1.40.  Adding the 55 gallons from the electric water heater saves another 5.4kwh costing $.92.  The only significant cost of using the electric water heater to increase storage capacity was $150 for the high temperate pump and a few watts to run it. Actual savings of course depend on stove operating time and water usage. With a family of four, winter hot water energy consumption is about half that of summer prior to adding the greenhouse batch heater. With addition of greenhouse batch collector now have lower hot water cost summer and winter.

Note: in calculating BTUs we are ignoring effect of temperature change on weight.

------------------------------- Caution ------------------------------------------

Water temperature above 120 F dramatically increases risk of being scalded.

Use of tempering valve or antiscald valve decreases risk.

 

Temperature

Time to produce 3rd degree burns on adult skin

160 F (71 C)

˝ second

150 F (66 C)

1.5 seconds

140 F (60 C)

5 seconds

130 F (54 C)

30 seconds

120 F (49 C)

>5 minutes

100 F (38 C)

Safe Temperature

Greenhouse Controller Integration

The greenhouse controller uses a multi-tiered strategy to maintain adequate winter temperature.  If it is unable to do so it sends out a freeze warning email and flashes the front panel freeze warning LED.  The good news is that so far this event has never occurred. However, if it does it will probably be in the wee hours of the morning when no one is at a computer to respond.  I wanted another method of impending freeze notification. The stove controller has an audible alarm so it was natural to expand its functionality to include the greenhouse freeze event.

If greenhouse temperature falls below acceptable temperate the greenhouse controller turns on a fan to blow in warm air from the basement to kept the plants happy. Running the fan to blow air into the greenhouse risks depressurizing the house if the wood stove controller fresh air fan is off.

Signaling is actually a bit more complicated than one would think because it not only needs to communicate with the wood heat controller it needs to be able to turn it on if the stove has gone out and the controller shutdown. 

Greenhouse Controller Health Status

I wanted to provide an indication of greenhouse controller health. If power is lost or the controller crashes it will likely go unnoticed for some time. Presently greenhouse OK condition simply indicates presence of 5 volts used to power the various greenhouse temperature sensors.  To maintain metallic isolation between greenhouse and stove controller used an optoisolator.

Greenhouse Impending Freeze Signaling

1-wire temperature sensors use 5V, Gnd, Data. I used 4-conductor cable to wire the greenhouse temperature sensors so assigned the fourth as the freeze alert. During a freeze event greenhouse controller pulls this line low. This turns on an optoisolator. The output turns on main wood stove controller power and provides a PLC digital input so it is able determine freeze event is active.

Greenhouse Basement Fan Signaling

To make sure wood stove controller is on when the greenhouse basement fan is running the freeze signal is pulsed active for 200ms when the fan is first turned on and again at 0 and 30 minutes past the hour if the fan is still on. This insures the wood stove controller is awake and the idle timeout counter will not turn it off while the greenhouse basement fan is running. As long as the wood stove controller is on so is the duct fan bringing in makeup air so the house does not become depressurized.  

Stove Work Light

The old controller had no provision for a work light to illuminate stove and cord wood storage bin. I’m stating the obvious but stove is hot while in operation. Walking by it in the dark is dangerous and wood needs to be added to the stove from time to time. Turning on the main lighting in that part of the basement seems like overkill just to check the stove and load a few sticks of wood.

I had never played around with white LEDs before so this seemed like a good excuse. I purchased a Cree XLamp ultra-bright white LED module rated at 350ma with a Vf of 4 volts. LEDs are highly directional which for our application is ideal. The light cone illuminates stove and wood storage bin providing enough light to safely load the stove without having to turn on general purpose basement lighting.  At full rated current the LED is much brighter than needed so I used a 47 ohm resistor in series with the 9V supply to limit current to 115 ma.  The LED is on whenever the controller is on.

Operating Modes

The controller needs to determine if stove is in operation. At power up the controller sets itself to non-heating mode, VAR1 = 0. If the flue temp bit goes high, indicating flue temperature exceeds 300F, VAR1 is set to 1, indicating heating mode.   This information is used to set idle timeout duration, whether to send an end of session email and to enable the house fans.

Audible Alarm

There are three sources of audible alarm: 1) flue over temp, 2) air over temp, 3) greenhouse freeze. If any of these conditions occur the respective LED flashes red and the alarm sounds.  The system uses a Mallory Sonalert to generate an annoying attention getting pulsing sound.  The Sonalert is powered from the 9V supply controlled by an open collector driver.

Alarm Silence

Once the alarm has your attention it is annoying having to listen to it until the condition is resolved.  A front panel push button allows the overtemp alarms to be temporally silenced. The silence feature works differently in case of a greenhouse freeze event. Pressing the silence button permanently silences the freeze alarm until the freeze condition no longer exists.   The respective LED continues to flash, even if the alarm is silenced, until the problem is resolved.

Really Loud Alarm

We have another audible warning system that alerts based on inputs from several high temperature sensors monitoring the house and outbuilding. The wood stove controller can be programmed to activate this system if the primary alarm is ignored.  If the alarm condition persists for 10 minutes and the silence button has not been pressed the loud alarm is activated making it harder to ignore. To make the alarm distinctive it cycles on/off every 6 seconds.

WebControl Programmable Logic Controller

One of the nice aspects of the CAI networks WebControl is that it includes a built in web server. This allows any PC on the LAN to monitor wood stove status and 1-wire temperature measurements.

The device provides 8 digital inputs, 3 10-bit analog inputs, 8 digital outputs, 8 Maxim/Dallas 18B20 1-wire temperature sensors, and a humidity sensor using a Honeywell 4000. The humidity sensor is not used for control functions but provide a convenient display of basement relative humidity.

WebControl implements a simple scripting language. User code is generated offline and pasted into the system.    

System Status

The System Status screen displays various values and registers.  VAR 1 indicates whether or not the system is in heating mode. VARS 2 and 3 record the starting temperature in the basement and second floor. Var4 is the shutdown idle time, it displays minutes past the hour when system will automatically shut down.  The other vars are used for various housekeeping functions.

The Input and Output bits display the various digital controls.

Temperature 1 is temperature near the wood stove. It is used to determine when to turn on fans. Temperature 2 is second floor closet. It is not used by the controller but provide a convenient indication of overall house temperate. Temp 7 is the preheat water tank. It is used to control the pre heat tank pump. Humidity is measured by a sensor located on the PLC. This is a display, the controller does not use this input.

Analog input 3 is the constant 5V supply used to enable automatic wakeup; the other two analog inputs are not used. Refer to the user code section for more details about bit assignments.


 

Email Alerts

The system generates three types of emails:  1) settings change, 2) end of heating session report and, 3) equipment problems.

User Settings

The controller has 4 web settable values. This is a convenient way to tune system operation without having to reload PLC code.

1.       UROM1 house fans on temperature

2.       UROM1 circulator pump on temperature

3.       UROM3 is not used

4.       UROM4 enables/disables loud alarm feature

This page also sets time zone for the RTC.

If web polling is checked the displayed page is continuously refreshed.

If 1-wire cable is long the TDSO parameter can be used to adjust sample timing.

Unfortunately title and units of measure are not end-user configurable.  To make setting values more user friendly at power up and each time any of the UROMx settings are changed the parameter checker is invoked. An email is sent at power up if any are out of range and each time a value is changed.  The email indicates if values are correct and information about the correct range and units.

 

End of Session

If the controller is in heating mode it sends an end of session email just before shutting down. The email includes beginning basement (VAR2) and upstairs (VAR3) temperature as well as current basement (T1), upstairs (T2) and preheat tank (T7) temperature.

Greenhouse or Temperature Sensor Failure

If greenhouse status monitoring detects a failure it sends a greenhouse failed email. If a temperature sensor fails a sensor fail email is sent. If the error is corrected and it reoccurs another email is sent, only one email is sent per event.

Additional Fire Safety Features

In addition to the purpose built wood stove controller we have several other fire safety devices.

Smoke & Carbon Monoxide Detectors

House, including stove area, is protected by multiple interconnected smoke alarms. Units are AC powered and battery backed ionization detectors. Battery backup is important during periods of power failure to maintain fire warning capability. One of the units is a combo smoke and carbon monoxide detector. These alarms are completely independent of the stove controller.

 

 

Heat Sensors

A temperature detector located on the ceiling above the stove triggers an alarm if air temperature exceeds 190 degrees F (87.8 C).  There are several of these detectors located throughout the house and outbuilding to act as a backup to the smoke detectors. Combustion appliances may overheat causing a dangerous over temperature situation while not emitting smoke to trip the ionization smoke alarms.  

The temperature warning system has its own power supply and horn. System uses two types of sensors: supervised – normally closed and unsupervised – normally open.  Commercial systems often implement supervision to detect sensor fault.

These sensors are separate from and set to a much higher temperature than the air over temperature alert implemented by wood stove controller software. If temperature near one of the sensor exceeds 190F the contacts either open or close (depending on sensor type) and the horn activated until temperature is reduced to safe level.

The stove controller’s loud alarm feature is used to sound the alarm by energizing a normally open reed relay to simulate an unsupervised temperature sensor.  In order to uniquely identify the source of the alarm the stove controller toggles the warning horn on and off every three seconds to produce a distinctive sound.

Fire Extinguishers

Multipurpose fire extinguishers are located at strategic locations throughout the house and outbuilding. I tried to choose locations that would not be blocked in the event of fire.

Fire extinguishers are classified by letter code indicating the type of fire they are effective against and a numerical value indicating size, the larger the number the larger the fire.   Typical residential extinguishers are rated ABC and come in 5 or 10 pound size.  

A – Ordinary combustibles

B – Liquids

C – Safe for use on electrical equipment

D – Combustible metals

Theory of Operation

The controller consists of several off the shelf components and a custom designed interface board.

A Type K thermocouple PID controller is used to monitor flue temperature. It has two relay outputs that close at low and high temperature thresholds. The controller displays flue temperate and control setpoint. The PID function is not used; controller is set for heating mode with simple setpoints for low and over temperature outputs.

A digital panel meter, using a dedicated thermistor temperature probe, reports preheats water tank temperature.

A CAI networks WebControl is the heart of the system implementing a programmable logic controller (PLC) and a web based user interface.

Front Panel Controls and Indicators

1.       Momentary rocker switch – manually turns unit on or off.  Amber power indicator is on in both standby and run mode indicating AC power is available. 

2.       Fresh air duct fan switch – fan may be set to operate constantly or only when controller is active. Green LED above switch is illuminated when fan is on.

3.       Temperature sensor - ventilated holder locates a1-wire temperature sensor to measure basement temperature near the stove. The automatic turn on reference NTC thermistor is mounted behind the front panel, in thermal contact with it, to provide thermal mass.

4.       Preheat tank water temperature display. A green LED above the display is illuminated when circulate pump is on.

5.       LED status indicators

a.       Flue temperature: blue - temperate too low below 300F, green - normal operation, flashing red – too hot temperature over 900F.

b.      Air temperature: blue - temperature below 80F fans off, green above 80F fans on, flashing red too hot air temperature over 115F.

c.       Greenhouse status: off – no power from GH controller, green - GH controller alive: flashing red – GH freeze warning.

6.       Audible alert - active if any of the three status indicators are red. Silence pushbutton used to temporally silence overtemp, and permanently silence greenhouse freeze alert.

7.       Flue temperature PID controller - upper display indicates flue temperature, smaller green display underneath indicates minimum acceptable flue temperature.  Status LEDs indicate “heating” mode – flue is below set point and alarm if flue temp exceeds 900F. Buttons are used to set operating parameters.

System Power Control

Due to the different ways the controller is activated power control logic is fairly complex.  A wired-or scheme is used to allow multiple signals to turn on the controller on, and last-man-out to turn it off.

Stove in Use Detector

I wanted the system to turn itself on automatically when the stove is in use. This insures controller is active during the burn even if it is not turned on manually. I tried using a disc thermostat attached to the flue pipe. This has the advantage vary rapid turn on but unfortunately commonly available disc thermostats are not able to survive the high flue temperature.

When stove is in use temperature near it is higher than farther away. I took advantage of this fact to measure temperature differentially using a pair of 10K NTC thermistors. Negative temperature coefficient thermistors exhibit dramatic reduction in resistance as temperature increases.

 One sensor is mounted within the controller to serve as an ambient reference and the other close to the stove. The two sensors are wired in series to the Auxiliary 5 volts supply.  With stove off both sensors are at nearly the same temperature so voltage at the junction of the two sensors is half the supply voltage, 2.5v. This is feed into the inverting input of an LM339 voltage comparator. The non-inverting input voltage is set by a 10-turn potentiometer allowing trip voltage to be varied between 1.2 – 3.8 volts. When the stove is running the thermistor near the stove is hotter, decreasing its resistance.  When the inverting input voltage is higher than the non-inverting comparator output is driven low turning the unit on.

The comparator output is connected to two 7407 non-inverting open collector buffers. One buffer drives the pass transistor used to switch power to the rest of the system and the other is connected to a PLC digital input allowing firmware to determine which event caused turn on. 

When stove is 5 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than reference the midpoint voltages increases approximately 140mv to 2.64v and when it is warmer by 10 degrees by 280mv to 2.78 volts. Thermistor temperature vs resistance curve is nonlinear but that is of no concern as all we are looking for is the stove to be several degrees warmer than the reference thermistor in the controller. In actual use the stove off voltage is 2.45 volts and the trip point is set to 2.55v. To prevent oscillation when both voltages are equal a 470k feedback resistor is used to provide 50mv of hysteresis. Self-heating of the controller increases temperature of the reference sensor adding an uncontrolled amount of additional hysteresis on the order of a couple of degrees Fahrenheit. 

The optimum set point is as low as possible that does not cause spurious controller turn on. Too high a setting delays or may even prevent automatic turn on from occurring.

PLC Keep Alive

Once system is turned on the PLC generates its own power on control signal. This allows software to keep the controller active even if hardware inputs become inactive.  A discrete transistor driven high by the controller keeps the system running until firmware decides to turn it off. Using a transistor driven high eliminates spurious turn-on as the controller logic is powered up and down.

Rocker Switch - ON

A front panel momentary rocker switch allows the system to be activated manually. It takes the PLC a while to complete power-up self-test (POST). This is longer than is convenient to hold the turn on button. A one-shot trigged at power up (for any reason not just manually) maintains system power while the PLC initializes. This signal is also used to inhibit fan and pump outputs as well as audible alarms so they are not inadvertently activated during startup.

Greenhouse Freeze Alarm

In order for the greenhouse to activate the audible alarm it needs to communicate with the stove controller and if the controller is off turn it on.

The greenhouse controller uses the same 1-wire temperature sensors as the stove controller, some of which are located within the house. 1-wire sensors use three connections, a bidirectional data lead, 5V power and ground. I used a 4-wire cable so the unused conductor provided an easy way for the greenhouse controller to signal an impending freeze event.  Both greenhouse and wood stove controller’s negative DC supply are connected to safety ground (green wire). To maintain metallic isolation optocouplers are used to monitor greenhouse status and freeze warning. 

To generate a freeze alert the greenhouse controller pulls the 4th wire to ground. An optocoupler wired between greenhouse sensor 5v supply and this lead is used to power up (if not already on) the stove controller, generate the alarm and resets the idle timeout. To minimize damage to either the opto or driver from miswires two series connected current limiting resistors are used. One at the greenhouse driver and the other at the wood stove controller.   

In addition to freeze notification, the greenhouse controller pulses the freeze signal for 200ms each time it turns on the basement fan to bring in warm air into the greenhouse and at 0 and 30 minutes past the hour whenever the basement fan is running. Firmware ignores these short pulses and does not trigger the freeze alarm. This ensures the woodstove controller is on when the fan is running. When the wood stove controller is on so is the fresh air duct fan bringing in makeup air preventing depressurization as warm air is being pumped into the greenhouse. 

I wanted to implement some sort of greenhouse controller health monitoring. A second optocoupler is connected to greenhouse sensor 5V and ground. This is pretty crude as it only monitors loss of power.  To accommodate future upgrade where the controllers talk to one another I drove the Greenhouse OK LED from a PLC output rather than directly from the opto. This allows firmware to control OK LED state.

If loss of GH 5V is detected the GH LED is turned off and a notification email is sent. Green indicates normal operation and flashing red indicates freeze warning.  

Automatic Power Down

Normally power down is performed under software control. Software constantly checks to see if there is any reason to keep the system powered up. If not it enters the idle state and sets a timer. If nothing takes it out of idle it shuts down when the timer expires.  If the unit is in heating mode the idle timer is set to 55 minutes, if not to 35.  In heating mode prior to shut down an end of session email is sent, logging beginning and end temperatures at the stove and 2nd floor closet. The timeouts are longer than the greenhouse fan notification period so the controller will not inadvertently turn itself off while the greenhouse basement fan is running.

Rocker Switch - Off

Pressing the front panel rocker switch off forces controller shutdown if other hardware inputs are not maintaining the on condition. The switch clamps the base of the software controlled keep alive transistor to ground and resets the power up one-shot. If none of the other hardware power up signals are active (differential stove temperature and greenhouse freeze) the system immediately shuts down.   If they are active the shutdown attempt is ignored.

DC Power Distribution and Control

Power is provided by a 9 volt 1 amp switching supply.  Power supply is a wall-wart type unit plugged into the AC module subassembly attached to the front panel. AC module consists of an IEC power inlet, 1/2A mains fuse, NEMA 5 receptacle for the wall wart and a solid state relay to control PID module power.

Controller has two power modes: standby and run. In standby only system activation circuitry is powered. The aux 5v feed is always on; everything else is off in standby mode because the switched 9 volt bus is turned off. A 7805 linear regulator generates the aux 5v used to operate standby power control logic.

During run time the switched 9 volt bus is turned on activating the: PLC, PID controller SSR, water temp display, fresh air fan (auto mode), and work light. The PID controller operates from AC mains power so a low current SSR is used to turn its power on and off.  Power up control logic uses a wired-OR arrangement allowing multiple logic signals to activate the system. 

When system is active switched 9V powers the SSRs and audible alarms to insure power to these devices goes away before switched 5V control logic becomes unstable. The PLC controller supplies 5 volts to power the LED combinatorial logic, open collector drivers and LEDs. 

If AC power is lost and restored the system automatically powers up. This insures it is active even if power is restored while stove is operating and there is not enough difference in temperate between the stove and controller to turn it on. The idle timeout functions will eventually cause shut down if it is not needed. When AC is restored the audible alarms chirp and the SSRs are momentarily activated as PLC stabilizes. Since this is an infrequent occurrence it is not a concern. This only occurs when AC power is restored not when the unit activates/deactivates normally.

During standby 9v DC current consumption is 50 ma (65ma if fresh air fan SSR is on) resulting in about 1W AC power consumption. Run time DC current consumption is 475-500ma (PLC, logic, SSRs, white and status LEDs). AC power consumption is: fresh air fan (43W), air circulation fans (23 W 1st fl + 60W 2nd fl) and preheat pump (34W). 

LED Indicator Logic

The other major logic subsystem controls the various LED indicators and SSRs. Flue and air temperature use tri color blue, green, red LEDs. Blue indicates too cold, green acceptable and red a dangerous over temperature.  A bicolor green/red LED indicates greenhouse status. Green indicates system is alive and red a freeze warning. A green LED is turned on whenever the preheat water pump is running. The fresh air fan is controlled directly by a front panel toggle switch. The switch routes either constant or switched 9V to the fan control SSR. A green LED above the switch displays fan state. Lastly an amber LED is used to indicate system is powered. It is on during both standby and run mode.

Alarm condition causes the respective LED to turn red and flash. The flash feature is implemented in hardware. The PLC PCB has a flashing health indicator. This signal is used to gate the red alarm LEDs causing them to flash.

SSRs and Audible Alarms

SSR and audible alarm outputs are inhibited by the power up one shot. This prevents these outputs going active until the PLC gains control of the system. PLC firmware controls the fan and pump SSRs and both audible alarms.

A reed relay maintains metallic isolation between stove controller and the loud alarm system. To sound the loud alarm the PLC turns on the alarm relay simulating a normally open temperature sensor activating the loud alarm horn.  A discrete transistor driven high by the controller controls the relay. Using a transistor driven high eliminates spurious turn-on as the controller is powered up and down. UROM4 is used to enable/disable this feature.

Field Wiring

A 12-position and 4-postion Jones terminal strips connect the various low voltage functions. Three high current SSRs are mounted on the chassis to control fans and water pump. Power and data cables enter through the rear of the unit.  

Four cables connect to the front panel:

1.       IEC C-13 AC power

2.       DB-15 LV chassis wiring

3.       Flue thermocouple is attached directly to PID controller TC input

4.       RJ-45 UTP Ethernet for web server

Low Voltage

1.       Flue thermocouple – leads are brought directly into the chassis and connect to the PID controller TC inputs.  This eliminates need to use a special thermocouple connector and extension cable. The TC has an exposed protective metal braid. I added heat shrink insulation to the portion near the controller to prevent accidental shorts.  White and red dots painted on the PID TC input terminals indicate correct TC cable polarity.

2.       Stove thermistor – the 10k NTC thermistor is ty-wrapped to the thermocouple cable near the stove flue pipe.  This provides rapid sensing of increased temperate when fire is started while not exposing it to excessively high temperature.

3.       Greenhouse status and freeze alarm: +5, ground, and freeze leads from greenhouse sensor cable are brought into the controller to drive GH OK and Freeze optos.

4.       Display and PLC preheat tank temperature sensors – a 4-postion terminal block located near the preheat tank supplies +5, ground, controller data and display data for the two sensors. The cable continues up to the second floor near the upstairs fan to monitor air temperature far away from the stove. The display data drives the front panel temperature display. Currently three PLC sensors are in use, one located on preheat tank and another in 2nd floor to monitor distant air temperature. A third sensor is mounted under a protective grill on the controller front panel to measure basement air temperature near the stove.

5.       Loud alarm – a normally open relay simulates an unsupervised fire alarm sensor. A 4-pos terminal strip provides access to both the normally closed and normally open loud alarm wiring. The controller is connected to the normally open pair. The high temperature sensor located in the ceiling over the stove is connected to the normally closed supervised pair.

6.       Stove Work Light – a white LED is mounted on the ceiling above the stove. To dress it up a little mounted it on a piece of aluminum step flashing and cut out a circular insulator from a piece of Teflon to protect the soldered connections.

7.       An Ethernet cable connects to the WebControl LAN port. The LAN Ethernet switch is located behind the controller so I just ran a patch cable from the controller to the switch rather than installing a “real” Ethernet drop to the chassis as I did with the greenhouse controller.

AC

1.       IEC C13 receptacle brings AC to the controller.

2.       Three chassis mounted SSRs are hardwired to AC wiring.

3.       Preheat circulate pump is hardwired to pump control SSR.

4.       Fresh air fan is plugged into a dedicated receptacle behind the stove controlled by its SSR.

5.       A pair of small computer fans plug into a dedicated receptacle located above the stove blowing air up through a grate in the floor. Another fan, plugged into a dedicated receptacle in the upstairs closet blows air back into the basement. Fans are controlled by an SSR.


 

Appendix A – Schematic

Except for SSRs and field wiring terminal strips all major components are mounted on the front panel. A small plastic enclosure isolates AC components: IEC inlet, fuse, NEMA 5-15R socket for DC power supply and a small SSR to switch PID controller power.

Interface logic is mounted on a 4x6 proto board and the WebControl PCB is mounted on standoffs above it. A DB-15 male socket connects low voltage wiring in the chassis.

 


 

Appendix B – WebControl Configuration Pages

There are several web based configuration pages that determine system operation.

Network Setup

This page selects DHCP or static configuration. It also allows setting the NetBIOS name. Web access to the controller can be unrestricted or require username/password login.

 

WebControl time can be set automatically via NTP or manually. The controller does not have a built in battery backed real time clock, time must be set each time controller is powered up or it is set to firmware default date/time.  I run my own LAN based NTP time server so point the controller at that time server rather than one on the Internet.

 


Pressing “Send” updates network settings and reboots the PLC. This is a handy way to reset the PLC remotely even when not making any changes to network settings.

I/O Setup

Individual outputs can be configured to allow PLC control and direct browser control. In most cases PLC code will eventually force the output to correct value even if web browser attempts to set or reset it. For critical outputs the browser interface can be disabled.

The active polarity of the outputs is set from this page.

Temperature Sensor Setup

18B20 1-wire temperature sensors are individually serialized. The controller detects attached temperature sensors at power up but they must be manually assigned to a particular sensor ID and units of measure specified.


 

Notify Setup

Email can be set up to use any TCP/IP port but the unit does not support SSL. In addition to email this page also configures HTTP GETs (not used in this example).

Up to eight email messages may be configured and each may be sent to a different email address. In addition to the user defined subject line and message body System Status page information is automatically appended.

I noticed a problem setting message body text with some web browsers (Firefox, chrome, IE10) the second character of each line after the first is lost. Setting message body works fine using IE8.

 

Appendix C – WebControl PLC Code

 

Wood Heat Controller

T. Schmidt

 

 

*********** Change Log *********************

 

2/23/2015          Reduced R2 to 120 ohms, original 220 was marginal (another 220 in

                        greenhouse), controller occasionally missed greenhouse Freeze wink

                        signal.

 

                        Reworked front panel rocker switch circuit and firmware. Pressing Off

                        now kills base drive to Q2 (PLC keep alive). Unless other hardware is

                        keeping Q1 turned on unit is forced off, works even if PLC has crashed.

 

1/30/2015          Fixed intermittent cause by broken solder joint U11 pin 7. Decreased

                        R5 to 330 ohms. Original 470 resistor marginal for greenhouse 5V sensing.

 

1/23/2015          Added second greenhouse wake up mode. House is so tight it tends

                        to depressurize when the greenhouse fan is used to pump air from

                        basement to GH. Makeup air is provided by a fresh air fan controlled

                        by the wood heat controller, it can either run continuously or be

                        turned on/off with the wood heat controller. GH pulses freeze for 200ms

                        each time the fan is stated and at 0 and 30 minutes past the hour.

                        Increased non-heating mode timeout to 35 so controller will never

                        timeout and shutdown when greenhouse fan is running.

 

                        GH freeze signaling now has two modes:

                       

                        1) GH Freeze alert - when GH temperature nears freezing GH controller

                        turns on freeze signal. This wakes up the wood heat controller if it

                        was off and triggers audible/visual alarm. Alarm can be silenced but

                        alarm (flashing red LED) is active for the duration of the freeze event.

                        Resetting freeze signal requires going into to GH and hitting the freeze

                        reset button.

 

                        2) GH Basement fan on - each time GH turns on basement fan to pump warn

                        air into the greenhouse it pulses the freeze signal for 200ms. This

                        turns the wood heat controller on, activating the fresh air fan and

                        resetting the idle timeout counter. FW ignores short duration freeze

                        signal to prevent triggering freeze alarm.

             

1/17/2015          Replaced 4" DC fresh air duct fan with 6" 230 CFM (no backpressure)

                        AC fan. Added SSR to control fan. Modes same as before: constant &

                        auto (fan only on when controller is on).

                        Higher performance fan seems to have solved the depressurization

                        backdraft problem when greenhouse basement fan is running.

 

12/30/2014        Added fan air temp test back to shutdown code but set to 88F.

                        Changed UROM1/2 temperature to degrees rather then .1F to

make it more user friendly.

 

12/8/2014          It appears Greenhouse controller 5V occasionally fails for a

                        few ms. Changed email notification to report each failure,

                        instead of only once per wood heat controller power cycle.

                        2/20/2015 update - glitch is caused by voltage droop when humidity

                        fan is turned on. Need to modify GH controller, remove diode in

                        PLC power leg and increase bulk capacitance on 9V power rail.

 

3/16/2014          Changed 18B20 preheat tank display module to thermistor sensor.

                        Old display displayed incorrect temp on rare occasions requiring a

                        power cycle to clear. 1-wire sensor power is always on, assume

                        display does not due full 1-wire protocol as it only connects to

                        single sensor and gets confused once in a while because sensor is

                        always powered.

 

2/2/2014            Removed fan air temp from shutdown code. Now system shuts down 55

                        minutes after flue temp goes below setpoint. This resolves problem

                        of fans running long into the morning during warmer weather.

 

                        Removed dual fan setpoint. Fans come on when air temp >UROM1 in

                        heating mode, off 2F hysteresis.

                       

1/18/2014          Reduced fan high offset to 5F. During warmer weather never hit hi

                        threshold so ran too long. Increased UROM1 setpoint to 78F.

 

12/20/2013        Changed UROM email. At power up email sent if any UROM value is

                        out of range. Whenever a UROM value is changed email sent indicating

                        in range or out of range. Note: change is detected by simply

                        summing all 4 values so if user changes up and another down

                        may miss change.

 

12/15/2013        Added dual fan setpoint. Initial set point is value in UROM1. Once

                        air temp hits UROM1 + 10F set point increased by 10F until next

                        power cycle. This causes fans to start early in heating cycle while

                        reducing how long they stay on once stove dies down.

 

9/2/2013            Cleaned up how fan function responds to out of range temp setting

                        and removed end of cycle redundant shutdown code.

 

6/14/2013          Added HIH-4000 humidity sensor. Display only, reading not used for

                        control.

 

4/14/2013          Increased fan on temp to 85F and decreased hysteresis to 4 to reduce

                        run time. Fans kept running hours after fire died down during warmer

                        months. Changed turnoff to check fan off state rather than actual

                        temp.

                        Fixed fan over temp bug, OT warning never turned off

 

4/3/2013            Upgraded to FW 3.2.17b

 

3/30/2013          Installed

 

3/29/2013          FW is sensitive to browser. Editing email text with FF, Chrome

                        IE 10 corrupts 2nd character. IE 8 is fine. Reported bug to CAI.

                        Told Works fine in IE 8 so good enough.

 

3/21/2013          CAI Networks confirmed temp status bug still exists in ver 3.2.16c.

                        I submitted 2nd bug report when developing wood heat controller

                        using ver 3.2.11. Same bug I reported when developing greenhouse

                        controller. Confirmed fix in FW version 3.2.17b.

 

3/18/2013          Code start

 

12/30/2012        Project start

 

 

*************** PCB Hardware/Firmware version ****************

Hardware: 2.2.2

Firmware: 3.2.17b

 

Customer loop executed every ~50ms (minimal test code) 65ms-ish (real code)

VAR and RAM initialized to 0 by system at power up

To reset PLC to power up state - update network settings (Send)

RAM location reset to 0 on code upload, VAR not affected

WebControl takes about 400ms to init I/O at power up

Per CAI Support Temp sensors take up to 2 sec to stabilize at power up

Email takes about 1.5 sec to send, no timeout if SMTP server does not respond

TTL inputs have 10k pulldown

Output buffers 10mA per output, 30mA total

A/D 10V full scale 10-bits

 

9V Power consumption

             50ma Standby - always on portion of interface board.

            175ma PLC only (Live Ethernet serving web page)

            360ma Active - PLC, interface board, indicator LEDs

             15ma Each SSR

            100ma white wood stove illumination LED

 

***************** I/O Defs **********************

 

Analog Inputs

-------------

AIP1 - not used

AIP2 - not used

AIP3 - Aux 5V

 

Digital Inputs

--------------

IP1 - /Stove On

IP2 - /Flue Temp Hi (<900F)

IP3 - Not use (pulled up)

IP4 - /GH OK

IP5 - Not used (tied lo)

IP6 - /GH Freeze

IP7 - Silence PB

IP8 - /Flue Temp Lo (<300F)

 

Digital Outputs

---------------

OP1 - Keep Alive

OP2 - GH OK LED

OP3 - Air Temp Hi LED

OP4 - Fans

OP5 - Preheat Pump

OP6 - Audible Alarm

OP7 - Loud Alarm

OP8 - not used

 

Temperature Sensors

-------------------

T1 - Basement near stove

T2 - 2fl closet

T3 - Not used

T4 - Not used

T5 - Not used

T6 - Not used

T7 - Wood_water_storage

T8 - Not used

 

Temp Sensor status (1 = OK)

------------------

TS1

TS2

TS3

TS4

TS5

TS6

TS7

TS8

 

Humidity Sensor

---------------

H1 - Display only

 

Email message Identifiers

-------------------------

EM1 - End of session email

EM2 - Greenhouse failure

EM3 - Temp sensor failure

EM4 - UROM value out of bounds

EM5 - UROM value within bounds

EM6 - Debug test

EM7 -

EM8 -

 

Variables

--------

VAR1 - Operating mode 1=heating, 0=other (GH freeze, manual)

VAR2 - Cycle start basement temperature

VAR3 - Cycle start upstairs temperature

VAR4 - Shutdown idle timer (100=normal,0-59 15-min non-heating, 55-min heating)

VAR5 - Alarm silence timer (100=normal,0-59 5-min silent period)

VAR6 -

VAR7 - Bad sensor state 0=send email, 1-200 debounce, 201 email sent

VAR8 - Sensor status 1=OK

 

RAM

---

RAM1 - Scratch 

RAM2 -

RAM3 -

RAM4 - GH freeze debounce freeze must be active >300ms to set to 1.

RAM5 - Loud alarm toggle timer (0=initial, 0-59 3-second toggle 1st pass randon

             time 0-59 sec)

RAM6 - Loud alarm delay timer (100=normal, 101=delay period met, 0-59 10-minute

             delay before activation)

RAM7 - Sum of current UROM values

RAM8 - Greenhouse go/nogo and audible alarm (0=OK, 1=PB audible alert inhibit,

            2=GH fail email sent and inhibits freeze audible alarm)

 

Web constants

------------

UROM1 - Fans on - Limits: 60 - 100F (2F hysteresis)

UROM2 - Preheat pump on - Limits: 120 - 160F (2F hysteresis)

UROM3 - Not used

UROM4 - Loud Alarm enable (1=on 0=off)

 

**************************************************

MODEDET

            Sets heating mode flag, based on flue temp.

            Delay at power up to allow temp sensors to stabilize.

            Sets VAR/RAM registers to default value.

            Activates SW controlled power control on to keep unit active even if all

            hardware power controls become inactive. Hardware one-shot maintains power

            until software is able to take command.

            If any UROM values set out of range send notification email at powerup.

 

FANS

            Basement and 2nd fl fans, setpoint in UROM1 with 1F hysteresis.

            Measured by temp sensor behind front panel.

            Fans only run in heating mode.

            If UROM1 value out of range fans forced on at 105F.

            Fan overtemp alarm triggered at 115F - regardless of heating mode flag in

            case PID controller fails.

 

HWPUMP

            Preheat tank recirculate pump. When tank reaches setpoint (UROM2) transfers

            water from electric water heater to preheat storage tank. Controlled by temp

            sensor on preheat tank outlet.

           

GRHOUSE

            Monitors greenhouse OK and freeze status.  Red Freeze LED controlled by

            hardware, software only needs to turn off Green OK status LED during freeze

            event or power bad. RAM4 is debounced cached freeze state. If freeze <500ms

            interpreted as GH controller wakeup event prior to turning on basement fan.

            GH controller also pulses freeze at 0 and 30 minutes past the hour to insure

            wood stove idle timer does not shut off the fresh air fan.

           

            If GH OK state is bad email sent and RAM8 flag set to 2 indicating GH is

            untrustworthy. RAM8 =2 Flag set and email sent when first detected, reset

            to 0 if 5V comes back and alarm silence has not been activated.

 

ALARM

            Monitors flue overtemp, air overtemp and greenhouse freeze to sound audible

            alarm. Front panel PB temporally silences over temp and permanently silences

            greenhouse freeze alarm.

 

LDALARM

            If front panel alarm ignored for more than a few minutes activates external

            alarm that is part of house fire alarm system. To make alarm more noticeable

            toggled on/off every 3 seconds. Loud alarm is enabled/disabled by UROM 4.

 

TSENSOR

            Monitors 1-wire temp sensor status, debounces bad status and if bad for a long

            time generates email.

 

UROMCHG

            Sums all 4 UROM values. Sends in bound or out of bound email once per change

            event.

 

SHUTDOWN

            Monitors system status and if nothing useful to do enters shutdown time

            delay. Longer delay used when in heating mode. If unit is in heating mode

            sends end of session email. 

 

 

******************* Code *************************

 

START

            CALLSUB         MODEDET

            CALLSUB         FANS

            CALLSUB         HWPUMP

            CALLSUB         GRHOUSE

            CALLSUB         ALARM

            CALLSUB         LDALARM        

            CALLSUB         TSENSOR

            CALLSUB         UROMCHG

            CALLSUB         SHUTDOWN

END

 

 

MODEDET:

            TSTEQ              OP1 0

            CALLSUB         STARTDLY      

            TSTEQ              IP8 1 

            SET                  VAR1 1 

            RET   

 

STARTDLY:

            SET                 OP1 1

            DELAY             10000

            SET                  VAR1 0

            SET                  VAR2 T1

            SET                  VAR3 T2

            SET                  VAR4 100

            SET                  VAR5 100

            SET                  VAR6 0

            SET                  VAR7 200

            SET                  VAR8 0

            SET                  RAM1 0

            SET                  RAM2 0

            SET                  RAM3 0

            SET                  RAM4 0

            SET                  RAM5 0

            SET                  RAM6 100

            ADD                 UROM1 UROM2 RAM7

            ADD                 UROM3 RAM7 RAM7

            ADD                 UROM4 RAM7 RAM7

            SET                  RAM8 0

            CALLSUB         RANGECHK

            BZ                    RANGEOK

            EMAIL              EM4

RANGEOK:

            RET

 

RANGECHK:

            TSTLT               UROM1 60

            RET

 

            TSTGT              UROM1 100

            RET

 

            TSTLT               UROM2 120

            RET

 

            TSTGT              UROM2 160

            RET

 

            TSTGT              UROM3 0

            RET

 

            TSTGT              UROM4 1

            RET

            RET

 

FANS:

            TSTGE              T1 1150

            SET                  OP3 1

            TSTLT               T1 1100

            SET                  OP3 0

            TSTLT               UROM1 60

            GOTO               FORCEFAN

            TSTGT              UROM1 100

            GOTO               FORCEFAN

            TSTEQ              VAR1 0

            RET

 

            MUL                 UROM1 10 RAM1         

            TSTGE              T1 RAM1

            SET                  OP4 1

            SUB                 UROM1 1 RAM1

            MUL                 RAM1 10 RAM1

            TSTLE              T1 RAM1

            SET                  OP4 0

            RET                             

 

FORCEFAN:

            TSTGE              T1 1050

            SET                  OP4 1

            TSTLT               T1 1000

            SET                  OP4 0

            RET     

 

HWPUMP:

            MUL                 UROM2 10 RAM1

            TSTGE              T7 RAM1

            SET                  OP5 1

            SUB                 UROM2 2 RAM1

            MUL                 RAM1 10 RAM1

            TSTLE              T7 RAM1

            SET                  OP5 0

            RET     

 

GRHOUSE:

            SET                  RAM4 0

            TSTNE              IP4 0

            GOTO               GHFAIL

            TSTEQ              IP6 1

            GOTO               NOFREEZE

            CALLSUB         CANXSD

            DELAY             500

            TSTEQ              IP6 0

            SET                  RAM4 1

NOFREEZE:

            TSTEQ              RAM4 0 OP2

            NOP

            TSTEQ              RAM8 2

            SET                  RAM8 0

            RET     

 

GHFAIL:

            SET                  OP2 0

            TSTNE              RAM8 0

            RET

 

            EMAIL              EM2

            SET                  RAM8 2

            RET

 

ALARM:

            TSTEQ              IP7 1

            GOTO               SETDLY

            TSTNE              VAR5 100

            GOTO               CHKDLY

            TSTEQ              IP2 0

            GOTO               ALMON

            TSTEQ              OP3 1

            GOTO               ALMON

            TSTGE              RAM8 1

            GOTO               NOALRM

            TSTEQ              RAM4 1

            GOTO               ALMON

NOALRM:

            SET                  OP6 0

            SET                  OP7 0  

            RET

 

SETDLY:

            TSTEQ              OP6 0

            RET

           

            SET                  OP6 0

            SET                  OP7 0

            ADD                 CM 5 VAR5

            TSTGE              VAR5 60

            SUB                 VAR5 60 VAR5

            TSTEQ              RAM8 2

            RET

 

            TSTEQ              RAM4 1

            SET                  RAM8 1

            RET

 

CHKDLY:

            TSTEQ              CM VAR5

            SET                  VAR5 100

            RET

           

ALMON:

            SET                  OP6 1

            RET

 

LDALARM:

            TSTEQ              UROM4 0

            SET                  OP7 0  

            TSTEQ              UROM4 0

            RET

 

            TSTEQ              OP6 0

            SET                  OP7 0

            TSTEQ              OP6 0

            SET                  RAM6 100

            TSTEQ              OP6 0

            RET

 

            TSTEQ              CM RAM6

            SET                  RAM6 101

            TSTEQ              RAM6 101

            GOTO               LDTOGGLE

            TSTNE              RAM6 100

            RET

 

            ADD                 CM 10 RAM6

            TSTGE              RAM6 60

            SUB                 RAM6 60 RAM6

            RET     

 

LDTOGGLE:

            TSTNE              CS RAM5

            RET

           

            XOR                 OP7 1 OP7

            ADD                 CS 3 RAM5

            TSTGE              RAM5 60

            SUB                 RAM5 60 RAM5

            RET     

 

TSENSOR:

            AND                 TS1 TS2 VAR8

            AND                 TS7 VAR8 VAR8

            BZ                    BADSENSOR

            SET                  VAR7 200

            RET

 

BADSENSOR:

            TSTEQ              VAR7 201

            RET

 

            DEC                 VAR7

            TSTNE              VAR7 0

            RET

           

            EMAIL              EM3

            SET                  VAR7 201

            RET  

 

UROMCHG:

            ADD                 UROM1 UROM2 RAM1

            ADD                 UROM3 RAM1 RAM1

            ADD                 UROM4 RAM1 RAM1

            TSTEQ              RAM7 RAM1

            RET

 

            SET                  RAM7 RAM1

            CALLSUB         RANGECHK

            BZ                    UROMOK

            EMAIL              EM4

            RET

 

UROMOK:

            EMAIL              EM5    

            RET

 

SHUTDOWN:

            TSTEQ              IP1 0

            GOTO               CANXSD

            TSTEQ              IP8 1

            GOTO               CANXSD

            TSTEQ              IP6 0

            GOTO               CANXSD

            TSTGE              T1 880

            GOTO               CANXSD

            TSTEQ              CM VAR4

            GOTO               OFF

            TSTNE              VAR4 100

            RET

 

            ADD                 CM 35 VAR4

            TSTEQ              VAR1 1

            ADD                 CM 55 VAR4

            TSTGE              VAR4 60

            SUB                 VAR4 60 VAR4

            RET     

 

CANXSD:

            SET                  VAR4 100

            RET

 

OFF:

            TSTEQ              VAR1 1

            EMAIL              EM1

            DELAY             30000

            SET                  OP1 0

            DELAY             5000

            RET

 

******************* End **************************

Appendix D – PID Controller Configuration

The PID controller is configured for heating mode with PID feature disabled. Output is turned on when flue temperature is below the heating set point. Alarm 1 is turned on when flue temperature exceeds alarm threshold.

Specific values as follows:

1.       AL1 (Alarm 1): 900

2.       AL1 mode: Mode 2 absolute value hi

3.       AL2 (Alarm 2): Not used

4.       AL2 mode: Not used

5.       Range: Default I’m not sure what this is for

6.       Input:  Default Type K thermocouple

7.       Proportional band: Off

8.       Integral time range: Off

9.       Derivative time range: Off

10.   Control direction: Heating

11.   Control hysteresis: 2

12.   Output control mode: default= 20 relay

13.   Low analog output: not used

14.   High analog output: not used

15.   B5L: not used

16.   Temperature units: Fahrenheit

17.   Lock: 000=unlocked

18.   SV set value heating threshold = 300F